Sinfonia fantastica (opera di Hector Berlioz del 1930)

La SINFONIA FANTASTICA, episodio della vita di un artista, è una sinfonia a programma composta dal francese Hector Berlioz in un periodo molto fecondo per l’espressività romantica. Berlioz la realizzò a 27 anni dedicandola allo Zar Nicola II di Russia. Nasce come sfogo appassionato del profondo dolore da lui causato da una bella attrice irlandese che lo aveva rifiutato, Harriet Smithson, che in seguito divenne sua moglie. Sarà lui a lasciarla, circa dieci anni dopo, deluso dal tipo di vita di lei.

Prima del matrimonio, Berlioz riversa la propria passione in una colossale partitura, attribuendo ad ogni passo un preciso contenuto narrativo. Da qui nasce la musica a programma, in seguito utilizzata nei poemi sinfonici dei compositori postumi. Il programma prevede l’avvelenamento di un giovane musicista per amore con l’oppio e sotto l’effetto della droga, immagina la sua donna trasformata in una melodia, l’idea fissa che ritorna in ognuno dei 5 movimenti. In Sogni e passioni il giovane ricorda le proprie emozioni al conoscere la donna amata e poi le angosce e la gelosia. Un ballo è un valzer in cui si incontrano ad una festa da ballo. In Scena campestre una dolce atmosfera bucolica viene interrotta da lei che risveglia l’angoscia del giovane. In Marcia al supplizio il giovane sogna di avere ucciso la donna e di essere condotto al patibolo. In Sogno di una notte di sabba l’amata arriva in un’orgia di un sabba, fra ombre e stregoni, mentre le campane rintoccano una parodia del DIES IRAE. Quest’ultimo tratto venne utilizzato nel film SHINING di Kubrick.

La SINFONIA FANTASTICA è un’opera forse unica nel suo genere, l’archetipo perfetto di un nuovo modo di comporre musica per orchestra.

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